The research of Louis Pasteur , particularly his “Etudes sur le Vin” published in 1866, and the findings of his followers, had a significant impact in the 19th century on the knowledge on the fermentations and diseases of the wine. The laboratory equipment developed accordingly.

For instance, the oenologist has from then at his disposal microscopes, mustimeters to measure the density of the must as well as ebulliometers or ebullioscope for evaluating the alcohol content.

In display : a very rare ebullioscope used in the former times by the consumer protection officers for determining very accurately the percentage of alcohol in the bottles of wines and spirits under control !

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